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Understanding the IPO bubble in bull market

In recent years, Initial Public Offerings (IPOs) have captured the imagination of investors worldwide, particularly in emerging markets like India. The allure of quick gains and the promise of investing in the next big thing have driven retail investors to flock towards IPOs, often fueled by media hype and the fear of missing out (FOMO). However, beneath the surface of soaring subscription rates and blockbuster listing gains lies a cautionary tale of volatility, hype, and, in some cases, substantial losses for unsuspecting investors.

The Tata Technologies IPO, which saw staggering subscription rates and impressive listing gains, only to plummet soon after, is just one example of the rollercoaster ride that IPO investing can entail. Examining recent high-profile IPOs like Zomato, Nykaa, Paytm, and the infamous Reliance Power debacle sheds light on the pitfalls of blindly chasing IPOs without due diligence and a clear understanding of the underlying fundamentals.

The Hype Cycle

The frenzy surrounding IPOs is often fuelled by media hype, celebrity endorsements, and the promise of astronomical returns. Retail investors, driven by greed and the fear of missing out on the next big opportunity, rush to subscribe to IPOs, driving subscription rates to unprecedented levels. However, what follows the euphoria of listing gains is often a harsh reality check as stock prices plummet, erasing gains and leaving investors nursing substantial losses.

Case Studies in Hype and Reality

Zomato: Despite a subscription rate of 40 times and a blockbuster listing, the stock witnessed a precipitous fall, wiping out gains and plunging by 76%. The initial excitement quickly gave way to investor disillusionment as the stock failed to sustain its lofty valuations.

Nykaa: With subscription rates soaring to 82 times, Nykaa’s IPO was one of the most eagerly anticipated events in recent memory. However, the stock’s steep decline post-listing, losing nearly 65% of its value, underscored the dangers of blindly chasing IPOs without understanding the underlying business fundamentals.

Paytm: Touted as the largest IPO ever, Paytm‘s offering generated immense hype and anticipation. However, the stock’s dramatic fall of 83% from its peak highlighted the disconnect between market exuberance and underlying business fundamentals.

Reliance Power: The infamous Reliance Power IPO, which witnessed a staggering 50 lakh applicants, epitomises the dangers of irrational exuberance. Despite the overwhelming demand, the stock’s precipitous decline of 97% underscored the perils of investing in companies with inflated valuations and dubious fundamentals.

Lessons Learned and Cautionary Tales

The stories of these high-profile IPOs serve as cautionary tales for retail investors, highlighting the importance of conducting thorough due diligence and exercising prudence before investing in IPOs. While the allure of quick gains may be tempting, investors must resist the urge to succumb to hype and instead focus on the long-term prospects and fundamentals of the companies in question.

Key Takeaways

Avoid Blindly Chasing Hype: The frenzy surrounding IPOs often masks underlying risks and inflated valuations. Retail investors must exercise caution and refrain from blindly chasing IPOs based on media hype and celebrity endorsements.

Conduct Due Diligence: Before investing in an IPO, it is imperative to conduct thorough due diligence and assess the company’s fundamentals, growth prospects, and valuation metrics. Understanding the business model, competitive landscape, and management team is crucial for making informed investment decisions.

Invest for the Long Term: Rather than seeking quick gains, investors should adopt a long-term perspective and focus on companies with strong fundamentals, sustainable growth prospects, and a track record of value creation. Building a diversified portfolio of quality stocks is key to mitigating risk and achieving long-term financial goals.


While IPO investing holds the promise of substantial gains, it is not without its pitfalls. The recent spate of high-profile IPOs and subsequent stock price fluctuations serves as a sobering reminder of the importance of prudence, due diligence, and a long-term investment horizon. By avoiding the lure of hype and focusing on fundamentals, investors can navigate the IPO market with greater confidence and resilience, ultimately building wealth over the long term.

Disclaimer: This blog has been written exclusively for educational purposes. The securities mentioned are only examples and not recommendations. The information is based on various secondary sources on the internet and is subject to change. Please consult with a financial expert before making investment decisions.
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